MOSCOW — President Vladimir V. Putin dryly wanted President Biden “ great health” on Thursday following the American pioneer assented into a description of his Russian counterpart as a “killer,” and long-running tensions morphed into a furious exchange of trans-Atlantic taunts.

The prior evening, Russia took the rare step of recalling its ambassador to Washington after Mr. Biden’s remarks in a television interview, warning of the potential for an “irreversible deterioration of relations. ” On Thursday, seated at a gilded chair on the seventh anniversary of Russia’s annexation of Crimea, Mr. Putin all but called Mr. Biden a killer himself.

When I was a kid, when we argued in the courtyard, we stated the following: If you call someone names, thats really your name, Mr. Putin said, quoting a Russian schoolyard rhyme. “When we characterize other people, or even when we characterize other states, other individuals, it is always as though we’re looking in the mirror. ”

Despite Mr. Biden’s long-running criticism of Mr. Putin, some Russian analysts had voiced hope that the Kremlin could forge a productive working relationship with the new administration in Washington on regions of common interest. But Mr. Biden’s combative stance in an interview with ABC News which was broadcast on Wednesday appeared to puncture those hopes, even as many of Mr. Putin’s critics praised the American president’s remarks.

In the interview, when asked whether he thought Mr. Putin was a killer, Mr. Biden responded: Mmm hmm, I really do. ” He further vowed that Mr. Putin is “ likely to pay ” for Russian interference in the 2020 election, which was detailed in an American intelligence report this week.

Earlier this month, the Biden government declared sanctions against Russian officials after declassifying an intelligence finding that Russia’s domestic intelligence agency had orchestrated the poisoning of the opposition leader Aleksei A. Navalny.

In the White House on Thursday, Jen Psaki, the press secretary, shrugged off the recall of the Russian ambassador, noting that the American ambassador to Moscow, John J. Sullivan, was in place.

Asked if Mr. Biden regretted his somewhat undiplomatic characterization of Mr. Putin, she said, “Nope. The president gave a direct answer to a direct question. ”

Ms. Psaki repeated warnings that sanctions and other actions against Russia are coming “in weeks, not months. ” Still, she acknowledged that sanctions have had a limited impact: Some imposed on Russia after its seizure of Crimea from Ukraine in 2014 remain in effect, but after seven years they have not succeeded in forcing it to return the land.

There are a range of other tools at the disposal of any president, seen and unseen, Ms. Psaki stated, and weren’t likely to get before the process of what factors are underway. ”

To the Kremlin, Mr. Biden’s interview provided a new opportunity to emphasize its confrontation with the West for its home audience — a helpful tool at a time of broadening domestic discontent over a stagnant economy and official corruption.

Mr. Putin has painted Mr. Navalny and other Kremlin critics as Western representatives on a mission to destroy Russia. And polls show that Russians remain a lot more likely to trust Mr. Putin on foreign policy than they do on domestic affairs.

“This is a watershed moment,” Konstantin I. Kosachev, the head of the Foreign Affairs Committee in Russia’s upper house of Parliament, wrote in a post on Facebook on Thursday in reference to Mr. Biden’s meeting. “Any expectations for the new U.S. government ’s new policy toward Russia have been written off by this boorish statement. ”

Mr. Kosachev warned that Russia would respond further, without specifying how, to Mr. Biden’s comments “if explanations and apologies do not follow from the American side. ”

As if to underscore the anger in Moscow, the Russian Foreign Ministry said late Wednesday that it had summoned its envoy in Washington, Anatoly I. Antonov, to Moscow “ in order to analyze what needs to be achieved in the context of relations with the United States. ” Russia last recalled its ambassador to Washington in 1998, to protest American airstrikes against Iraq.

We are interested in preventing irreversible deterioration in relations, if the Americans become conscious of the dangers associated with this, Maria V. Zakharova, the Russian Foreign Ministrys spokeswoman, said in a statement.

On state television, news programs devoted extensive airtime to describing Mr. Biden as confused and out of touch, while politicians lined up to voice their anger and threaten a response.

Pyotr O. Tolstoy, the deputy chairman of the lower house of Parliament, thundered that “the only language” that Americans understand “is, alas, the language of force. ” Another senior lawmaker, Andrei A. Turchak, described Mr. Biden’s utterance as “a challenge to our whole nation. ”

Conservative American journalists already suspected that Biden has dementia throughout the campaign, a reporter intoned in prime time on the state-run Channel 1. “Over time, these suspicions have only intensified. ”

Mr. Putin, in his comments on Thursday, picked up on the notion being pushed by the Kremlin’s news media that Mr. Biden was somehow unwell.

I would tell him: Be healthy, Mr. Putin said, in response to a query about Mr. Bidens comments posed by a girl in Crimea in a televised video conference on Thursday. “I wish him good health. I say this without irony, without joking. ”

On Thursday evening, Mr. Putin appeared to try to tamp down tensions, and said he would direct officials to prepare a phone call with Mr. Biden in the coming days because “we can and we must continue to have relations. ”

Addressing another flash point between Moscow and Washington, Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken on Thursday said the construction of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, between Russia and Germany, was a “ poor bargain,” echoing Mr. Biden’s resistance to the job.

The pipeline would reroute Russian natural gas exports to Europe under the Baltic Sea and bypass Ukraine. The project has been opposed by U.S. lawmakers on the grounds that it gives Moscow a stronger hold on Europe’s energy sector and stands to deny Kyiv billions of dollars in revenue from transit fees. The Trump government also opposed the $11 billion project, which is directed by Russia’s Gazprom.

Mr. Blinken said the United States, which has already placed sanctions on companies involved in building the pipeline, is tracking which entities are still involved, and signaled they may be punished.

The Department is monitoring efforts to finish the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, Mr. Blinken said, also is evaluating information regarding entities that seem to be involved. ”

An escalation of tensions with the West has often accompanied domestic crackdowns by the Kremlin, which claims that the United States is covertly backing opposition politicians in Russia so as to weaken Mr. Putin.

As an example, Russia’s internet regulator warned that it was planning to block access to Twitter from the nation entirely starting in 1 month, after restricting access to the American social network last week.

Some Western intelligence agencies have accused Mr. Putin, among other things, of ordering the assassination attempt of his most vocal domestic critic, Mr. Navalny, by a military-grade nerve agent in Siberia this past year. Mr. Putin has denied playing any part because near-deadly poisoning, quipping in December that when Russian agents had wanted to kill the resistance leader, “ They would have probably finished the job. ”